1980 Juris Doctorate - Loyola University School of Law; Los Angeles, California.
1974 Masters in Business Administration - University of Chicago; Chicago, Illinois. Graduate School of Business, Graduate Program in Hospital Administration. George S. Bugbee Scholar.
1972 Bachelor of Arts and Sciences - University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois. Graduated with High Honors, Departmental Distinction in Economics. Phi Beta Kappa.